A   C o m p r e h e n s i v e   M a n u a l
Speech Format
ence, the following suggestions will help
You might find yourself in a speech for 
you in preparing your presentation.
mat at a rally, teach in, or in making a
presentation to another group.  You usu 
Know the information.  Read the basic
material on the subject and know
ally have more control than in an inter 
points both for and against your posi 
view, but less time than in a workshop.  It
is important to be brief, to have a few
catchy points to make and to speak with
passion.  If you are speaking with others
Focus on a few key points.  Present
them in an interesting way (e.g., a new
who you know, try to coordinate so you
framework, with humor, personal
all don t repeat each other.  Depending on
the situation you might have either a sup 
portive or a hostile audience.  Your audi 
ence might be constant or there may be a
Get your audience s attention from the
steady flow in and out.
start and end with a bang.  Use clever
phrases, dramatic one liners, and other
Debate Format
rhetorical devices;
In a debate setting, you may be on a pan 
el with others who you don t know or
Make an outline.  The level of detail
who you know disagree with you, or you
will depend on your allotted time and
may be part of an actual formal debate
the situation;
situation.  In either case you won t have a
lot of time and your performance is like 
Read your remarks aloud to get the
ly to matter as much as the content of
proper timing.  Remember to stay
what you say.  If possible, it is useful to
within your time limit.  Shorten your
find out as much about your opponents
speech accordingly.  Often you will
and their position as you can beforehand.
have an opportunity to make additional
Make your points in a simple and clear
points during a question and answer
manner, and be prepared to poke holes in
their arguments.  This situation can be a
bit like theatre so do your best to be
Memorize the key points of your talk;
relaxed, amusing, and clever.  Try not to
get to caught by what your opponents
Put your outline on index cards;
say; keeping your cool can count for a lot
especially if they lose theirs.
Develop resource materials (e.g.,
charts, overheads, video clips) that pre 
sent facts and back up your presenta 
No matter which of these formats you are
tion.  Make copies of materials to hand
presented with (and sometimes there are
elements of more than one of these dur 
ing the same event), you will need to pre 
If you anticipate hostility, make sure
pare.  Although the situation may vary in
you bring support people with you to
terms of length of time you are allotted,
ask good questions, applaud, etc.; and
the sympathy of the audience, and the
knowledge and background of the audi 
Incorporate new material into your talk
as it becomes available.
B a s i c   S k i l l s     M     8 3


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